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대한한의학원전학회지

『老子』와 『黃帝內經』의 人間觀과 自然觀의 比較硏究

A Study on the View of Human Being and Nature in 『No-Ja(老子)』 and 『Hwan…

서지사항
저널명 : 대한한의학원전학회지
 저자 : 김도훈, 홍원식 [Kim Do-hoon, Hong Won-sik]
연도, 권호 : 2002년, 15권 1호
Abstract
This paper is mainly on the View of Human being and Nature in 『No-Ja(老子)」 and 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』, and the relation of the two. 『No-Ja(老子)』 was written in the period between the close of Chun-chu(春秋) period and the beginning of Jeon-guk(戰國) by a person known as No-Ja(老子) or No-Dam(老聃). It still stands as a major representative classics of the East Asia. The View of Human being and Nature in 『No-Ja(老子)』 can be summarized as 'keeping away from intentional behaviors and letting things be done by the natural courses they may take'. 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』 was written between the close of Jeon-guk(戰國) period and the Han(漢) dynasty by the Hwangje school, which belongs to the Taoist school. 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』 absorbed various ideas, and the descriptions of the human body, view of human being and the nature in it is supposed to be under the influence of 『No-Ja(老子)』. 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』 is the oldest medical book, which composes the fundamental of Oriental Medicine. It intensively summed up the products of the ancient East Asian natural sciences and medicine as well. It has also been the footstep for the development of Oriental Medicine till today. If you should thoroughly understand the relationship between the view of human being and nature both in Taoism and Oriental Medicine, you may have more clear perspectives and solutions for the problems we have in this civilized world. Conforming to the naturer(or natural attitude, natural desire, etc.) is the main idea in 『No-Ja(老子)』 and 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』. This main idea should always kept in mind, if we are to deal with the ideas in 『No-Ja(老子)』 and 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』 without fallacy. For the perspective on the origin of human being and nature, 『No-Ja(老子)』 called the origin as 'Do(道)'. It is based on the monistic point of view that sees human being and the nature having identical origins, but differentiated only by their names. When it comes to represent the origin of the whole creation, we call it Do(道), and the state where the nature of Do(道) is manifested on the whole creation is called the 'Deok(德)'. By the intermediation of Deok(德), we can find ways in which the human being can unite with Do(道) and thus, with nature. In 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』, which sees the origin of human being with the view of Gi-hap(氣合: uniting with 氣), considers the origin of human being as Gi(氣). Human beings can live only with the flow of nature's Gi(氣), and by being located between where Gi(氣) meets, he can be in a state of Cheon-In-sangeung(天人相應) with nature. For the life of human being, 『No-Ja(老子)』 considers the ideal man who lives life by taking the flow of the nature. And the idea of Eum-Yang(陰湯) in No-Ja(老子)』 is simple dialectic, but didn't specifically show. However, in 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經), it deals with the human body and physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatments are all induced to Eum-Yang(陰陽) and O-Haeng(五行). Moreover, various changing phases of Eum-Yang(陰陽) can be seen within the 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』 It also describes the start and the development of diseases with the change of Eum-Yang(陰陽). The view of 'Chung-Gi(冲氣)' in 『No-Ja(老子)』 affected the view of 'Gihwa(氣化)' in 『Hwangje-Naegyeong(黃帝內經)』, which outlines the rule of 'Saenghwa(生化)' as 'Hwa-Gi(和氣)'. For life and death, 『No-Ja(老子)』 regards it as ups and downs in the flow of Do(道). If the Do(道) comes out to the phenomenal world, it's called life, and if it goes back to the substantial world, it's called death. The flow of Do(道) doesn't have any artificial goals or intentions. It just progress in the harmony with EumYang(陰陽). In this point of view, 『No-Ja(老子)』 emphasizes the immaterial world and Do(道)-the origin of the whole creation, rather than the concrete world and the whole creation. Being indifferent to life and death. its highest goal is to let matter take its natural courses. The reason Hwangje-Naegyeong (黃帝內經)」 suggests us to accord with the flow of nature is to make us achieve the goal of life(living a longer life) more easily. This difference in the view of life and death is what made No-Ja(老子) and Hwangje Naegyeong(黃帝內經) go in different directions, though both insisted on conforming to the nature altogether, and the Taoism was a great influence to many ideas in Hwangje-Naegyeong (黃帝內經).

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